Commodity prices are on track for their biggest rally in more than a century, while fixed-income assets have seen their longest run of outflows as the war in Ukraine adds to inflationary pressures in the global economy emerging from the coronavirus lockdown, according to Bank of America.
"Commodity prices this year are on track to record their biggest gains since 1915." the bank said in its weekly briefing. They cite many factors, such as pandemics, lockdown, civil strife, wars, excessive monetary and fiscal stimulus, and supply chain disruptions, that have led to "historically" high inflation.
By the same token, it said government bonds were heading for their worst year since 1949, and "negative-yielding bonds will quietly disappear" from the market as central banks embark on a monetary tightening cycle and raise interest rates to tame soaring inflation.
The prices of many commodities like the foam concrete,foaming agent,concrete curing agent are expected to increase in the future.
To study the problem of collapse mode cracking in the cast-in-place foam concrete wall, using ordinary Portland cement, fly ash, and self-made composite foaming agent as the primary raw materials, the admixtures (there are two kinds of admixtures) were studied through single-factor experiments. One is a foaming agent, and the other is concrete curing agent.
According to the characteristics of the foaming agent that the foam pore size can be adjusted freely, and the preparation is atomized and diluted during use. The pore size is more acceptable and uniform (the pore size is less than 1mm). The light foam and slurry are mixed to make a lightweight concrete microporous slurry. The porosity in the slurry accounts for 70% of the total volume of the foamed concrete. The foams in the slurry are closed by a water film. They are not connected, which improves the problem of high water absorption in traditional concrete and improves the frost resistance and impermeability of foam concrete. It has a specific activation effect on fly ash.
The slurry in the pouring and forming stage has self-leveling characteristics, good pore structure, smooth entry into the mold, and rapid thickening and forming. Ensure the stability of expansion and improve the strength of foam concrete blocks. Foamed concrete has excellent properties such as lightweight, heat preservation, heat insulation, sound insulation, etc., and it has low production investment. It can use a large amount of industrial waste residue. Its application is of great significance to building energy conservation and environmental protection, so it will gradually replace concrete construction.
According to previous studies, with the increase of fly ash content, the amount of cement decreases, and the early compressive strength of concrete drops significantly. However, fly ash has pozzolanic activity, and in an alkaline environment, with the increase of concrete age, the compressive strength of high-volume fly ash foam concrete will increase significantly. In addition, the large amount of fly ash dramatically reduces the number of harmful pores, improves the compactness of the slurry structure, and is beneficial to the later strength increase.
In recent years, the application of foamed concrete has developed rapidly, but there are still a series of problems in the cast-in-place foamed concrete insulation wall:
(1) Foam concrete has low strength and is not suitable as a load-bearing wall material;
(2) Prefabricated blocks increase the process and engineering costs;
(3) Dry shrinkage of foam concrete and cracking caused by dry-wet cycle and loose structure, due to the problems of collapsed form and easy carbonization due to the influence of pouring height, seriously restrict the broad application of foam concrete.
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Europe has been facing the gas shortage problem since the second half of 2021. The worsening situation in Russia and Ukraine has reduced Russian gas shipments to Europe, leading to a doubling of European gas prices. Energy shortages have sent electricity prices soaring. For these reasons, it is predicted that the price of the foam concrete,foaming agent,concrete curing agent will continue to increase.
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