Introduction to the production and function of HCG and the application of false positive hiv test
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced primarily by differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, is a key embryonic signal necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy. hCG can activate various signaling levels in multiple cell types through binding to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) or possibly through direct/indirect interaction with transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFβR) Cascade reactions, including maternal anti-descapone paralysis homologue 2 (Smad2), protein kinase C (PKC) and/or protein kinase A (PKA). This molecule exhibits specific roles in promoting uterine endothelial angiogenesis, maintaining myometrium quiescence, and promoting immunomodulation at the maternal-fetal interface. It is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that includes luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The α subunit of hCG has homology with TSH, LH and FSH, while the β subunit has 80-85% homology with LH. The hCG molecule is produced by various organs, exists in various forms, performs important biological functions, and has various clinical roles ranging from diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy and pregnancy-related diseases to cancer monitoring.
During the first trimester, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced primarily by differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, is a key embryonic signal necessary to maintain pregnancy dehydrogenation. During the first 3 weeks of pregnancy, hCG promotes the secretion of progesterone, estradiol, and estrone by converting the postovulatory ovary into the corpus luteum of pregnancy. In addition, hCG binding to its receptor plays an important role in promoting uterine endothelial angiogenesis, maintaining myometrial quiescence and promoting immune regulation by changing dendritic cell activity, reducing T cell activation and cytokine production, promoting T regulatory (Treg) cell recruitment and It plays a particular role in increasing uterine natural killer (NK) cell proliferation at the maternal-fetal interface . Metabolism of hCG by the placenta, liver, blood and kidneys determines its steady-state levels. Measurement of serum or urine hCG levels provides important information in a variety of clinical situations, such as diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, prenatal screening, and gynecological cancers.
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The positive impact of the false positive hiv test
The false positive hiv test can be more convenient, improve testing coverage and participation, and help prevent or diagnose some diseases; Reduce the burden on the healthcare system and improve the efficiency of the effective use of medical resources; Protect patient privacy and reduce the misuse of medicines such as antibiotics.
Public medical perspective, false positive hiv test risk
There are also some risks in the use of false positive hiv test. Whether the self-examiner can correctly judge the timing and results of the test and can correctly decide whether to seek medical treatment, Causing psychological burden on self-examiners, leading to overtesting, which in turn increases the financial burden; Inability to understand the instructions, incorrect operation or interpretation of results by the self-examiner, resulting in false negatives and false positives; Causing psychological burden on self-examiners, leading to overtesting, which in turn increases the financial burden;
Future development of false positive hiv test
Although the new crown epidemic has had a global impact on the economic and social level, it has made global regulators and society pay attention to the development of self-test reagents. Compared with the situation where many suspected patients gather in hospitals and cause a run on medical resources, the home testing application scenario of self-test reagents has natural advantages. On the one hand, it can improve the testing coverage and speed of the whole society, on the other hand, it can implement the home isolation policy more quickly to facilitate the accurate control of the epidemic, which will neither cause a run on medical resources nor cause panic. Therefore, the social benefits of self-test reagents with similar false positive hiv test significantly outweigh the risks.
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