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Water reduction mechanism of polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizers

Today'' s concrete superplasticizers are basically prepared by compounding different products such as polycarboxylate water-reducing mom alcohol as well as polycarboxylate slump-preserving mother liquor plus retarders, air-entraining representatives, as well as defoaming agents. Among them, the function of water-reducing mother service in superplasticizer is irreplaceable. Perhaps the amount of mommy solution will certainly alter because of the adjustment of concrete material, yet I have never ever heard that water-reducing mom solution is not contributed to superplasticizer because the sand is too great.
The water-reducing mommy liquid is utilized as the outright major material in the water-reducing agent, and also its feature is to reduce the concrete water-cement ratio (indirectly raise the strength of the concrete), and also at the very same time make sure the fluidness and also workability of the concrete mixture, and ensure the toughness of the concrete. At the very same time, it additionally facilitates the work of the construction system.

We know that along with seal and water in concrete, the result of the continuing to be materials on the superplasticizer admixture molecules is generally adsorption (waste), so the water minimizing agent is mainly targeted at concrete. So first, let’& rsquo; s find out about the hydration procedure of concrete.

The hydration process of basic portland concrete is separated into 3 phases:

( 1) Dissolution phase: When the concrete touches with water, the surface area of the bits starts to moisten, as well as a small amount of hydration items are produced, which are immediately liquified in water. The exposed new surface area allows hydration to continue up until a saturated option of hydration products is created.
( 2) Gelation phase: Due to the saturation of the service, the product that continues to be hydrated can no longer be dissolved, but is straight precipitated as colloidal bits. With the rise of hydration items, the hydration aggregates, as well as the cement slurry slowly loses its plasticity, causing a coagulation sensation.
( 3) Crystallization phase: The colloid composed of microscopic crystals is not stable, and can gradually recrystallize to develop macroscopic crystals, to ensure that the mechanical strength of the solidified body of the cement slurry is continually improved, and lastly it becomes a concrete rock with a particular mechanical toughness.

In the cement slurry, the diffusion system of polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizers is normally thought about to be the primary role of steric obstacle and also the second duty of electrostatic repulsion. Additionally, the complexation of calcium ions and the lubrication of hydration film additionally play a role. vital function.

1. Steric obstacle:
The hydration procedure of cement will make the cement particles draw in each various other, resulting in a flocculation structure.
During the development of the flocculation structure, the concrete particles will encapsulate a part of the water particles, and also the encapsulated water accounts for around 10% -30% of the overall mixing water (this may be the reason the water reducing representative has a water reducing rate limitation). Since it is covered by concrete particles, it can not take part in the cost-free circulation and lubrication between concrete molecules, hence influencing the fluidness of concrete combinations. When the polycarboxylate concrete admixture molecules first entered into contact with the cement particles, the adversely billed major chain in the polycarboxylate concrete admixture molecules can be adsorbed on the surface of the positively billed concrete fragments, that is, an "anchoring" phenomenon occurs, while the polycarboxylate superplasticizer The lengthy side chain in the particle is prolonged in the fluid phase of the concrete slurry to form an adsorption layer with a specific thickness, and can form a three-dimensional as well as went across long side chain with various other polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer particles extending in the fluid stage of the concrete slurry at the exact same time. Conformation. When the concrete fragments move toward each other, the adsorption layer overlaps, and the larger the overlapping range, the greater the repulsion in between the cement bits, thus improving the dispersibility of the cement particles. Damage the flocculation structure between cement particles. The launch of the water caught by concrete flocculation can also be recognized as the water minimizing representative molecules boost the lubricating utilization rate of the water molecules to the cement molecules, and do not increase the water or lower the variety of water particles out of slim air.

2. The concept of electrostatic repulsion:
Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer particles consist of anionic teams (COO2-), and also in the very early hydration procedure of cement, the surface of concrete bits consists of positive charges (Ca2+), consequently, anionic Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer particles adsorb to positively billed concrete bits surface area. Make the cement bits right into a "hedgehog" with negative cost. Due to the fact that the concrete fragments with the exact same adverse cost repel each various other (electrostatic repulsion), the dispersibility between the cement fragments is enhanced. At the very same time, the adversely charged carboxyl groups and also positively billed calcium ions in the cement paste form unsteady complicateds. After the calcium ions liquified in the concrete system are caught, the calcium ion focus lowers dramatically, decreasing the calcium ions in the system. It can lower the formation of gel fragments and therefore reduce the hydration price of cement, inhibit the hydration of cement, as well as boost the diffusion efficiency of cement particles. The greater the material of carboxylate ions in the Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer, that is, the better the anion charge thickness, the higher the dispersion performance of cement particles (acid-ether ratio). The reduction of calcium ion focus can prevent the initial hydration of concrete. With the continuous progression of hydration, the facility will certainly disintegrate on its own, so Polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer has a certain retarding impact without influencing the stamina of concrete.

3. Lubrication
The branched chain of the polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer molecule has hydrophilic groups. These groups develop a water movie on the surface of the concrete bits by incorporating with water particles, which decreases the surface energy of the concrete particles. Slides quickly. The consolidated effect of the above results in splitting up between the cement particles. The macroscopic efficiency is that the concrete mixture has much better fluidity.
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