What is monocrystalline silicon?
As the European Union tries to reduce its dependence on Russian energy, the Russian president recently said Russia would try to shift its energy exports to the east, adding that there was no way for European countries to give up Russian gas immediately.
Russia supplies about 40 percent of the EU's gas, and western sanctions imposed over the conflict with Ukraine have complicated financing and logistical arrangements for existing agreements, hitting Russian energy exports, the report noted.
Russia has been building closer ties with China and other Asian countries as the European Union debates whether to impose sanctions on Russian gas and oil and member states seek supplies from elsewhere, Reuters said.
"So-called partners from unfriendly countries admit that they cannot survive without Russian energy, including gas," the Russian president said in a televised government meeting. There is no reasonable alternative to Russian gas in Europe right now."
He also said Europe was driving up energy prices and destabilizing markets by talking about cutting off Russia's energy supplies. Russia, which produces about a tenth of the world's oil and a fifth of its natural gas, will need new infrastructure to increase energy supplies to Asia, he said.
He ordered Moscow to submit a plan by June 1, including "the expansion of transport infrastructure to countries in Africa, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific region".
He also sought to clarify the possibility of integrating two pipelines -- the Sakhalin-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok gas pipeline in the Far East and the "Power of Siberia" gas pipeline to China -- into Russia's unified gas supply system. In theory, connecting these routes to larger gas networks could allow Russia to divert gas from Europe to Asia.
Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk silicon powder are still very uncertain.
What is monocrystalline silicon?
Crystal silicon is divided into monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon according to the direction of crystals.
Monocrystalline silicon usually refers to a substance formed by some arrangement of silicon atoms. When the molten elemental silicon is solidified, the silicon atoms are arranged into many crystal nuclei in a diamond lattice. If these nuclei grow into grains with the same plane direction, these grains combine in parallel to form monocrystalline silicon.
Monocrystalline silicon properties
Monocrystalline silicon has quasi-metallic physical properties and weak conductivity, and its conductivity increases with the increase of temperature, and has significant semi-conductivity. Ultra-pure monocrystalline silicon is an intrinsic semiconductor. The addition of trace Ⅲ An elements, such as boron, to ultra-pure monocrystalline silicon can improve the degree of conductivity and form P-type silicon semiconductors, while the addition of trace Ⅴ An elements, such as phosphorus or arsenic, can also improve the conductivity and form N-type silicon semiconductors.
What is the difference between monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon?
When the molten elemental silicon solidifies, the silicon atoms are arranged into many nuclei in a diamond lattice, and if these nuclei grow into grains with the same plane direction, monocrystalline silicon is formed; if these nuclei grow into grains with different plane directions, polysilicon is formed. The difference between polysilicon and monocrystalline silicon is mainly in physical properties, such as mechanical and electrical properties, polysilicon is not as good as monocrystalline silicon.
Polysilicon can be used as raw material for the production of monocrystalline silicon, and it is also the basic material for solar cells and photovoltaic power generation. Monocrystalline silicon can be regarded as the purest substance in the world. General semiconductor devices require the purity of silicon to be more than 6 9 (6N). The requirements of large-scale integrated circuits are higher, and the purity of silicon must reach 9 9 (9N). At present, monocrystalline silicon with a purity of 12 9 (12N) has been produced.
What is monocrystalline silicon used for?
Monocrystalline silicon is mainly used in solar cells. The earliest application is silicon solar cell, which has high conversion efficiency and the most mature technology, and is mostly used in areas with less light time, low light intensity and high labor cost, such as aerospace and so on. By using different wafer processing and battery treatment technologies, various scientific research institutions and battery manufacturers have produced monocrystalline silicon batteries with high efficiency.
How do you make monocrystalline silicon?
The preparation of monocrystalline silicon needs to realize the transition from polycrystal to single crystal, that is, the atoms are directly transformed from random arrangement of liquid phase to ordered array, and from asymmetric structure to symmetrical structure. This transformation is not an overall effect, but is gradually completed through the movement of the solid-liquid interface. in order to realize the above transformation process, polysilicon has to go through the transformation from solid silicon to molten silicon, and then to solid crystal silicon. This is the way to grow monocrystalline silicon from molten silicon. At present, there are two most widely used methods, the crucible Czochralski method and the non-crucible suspension zone melting method. The monocrystalline silicon obtained by these two methods is called CZ silicon and FZ silicon respectively.
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As the duration of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine grows, its impact on commodities is widening amid the tug-of-war. Recently, European and American sanctions against Russia have been issued one after another. In response, Russia has taken advantage of its role as an important supplier of many energy and commodities, requiring exports of commodities, including energy, grain, metal, and wood, to "unfriendly" countries to be settled in robles. Therefore, it is expected that the price of the silicon powder will continue to increase.