A new type of superhard diamond glass was synthesized. Can New Ultrahard Diamond Glass Synthesized see the advantages of sodium stearate in skin care?
Of all the glass materials, it is the hardest glass known and has the highest thermal conductivity.
Carnegie Yingwei Fei and Lin Wang are part of an international team of researchers that have synthesized a new superhard form of carbon glass with rich potential practical applications in devices and electronics. Of all the glass materials, it is the hardest glass known and has the highest thermal conductivity. Their findings are in Nature.
In understanding the properties of a material, function follows form. The way atoms chemically combine, and the resulting structural arrangements, determine the physical properties of a substance -- both visible to the naked eye and discovered through scientific exploration.
Carbon is unmatched in its ability to form stable structures -- alone or in combination with other elements. Some forms of carbon are highly ordered, with a repeating crystal lattice. Others are more disordered, a property known as amorphous.
The type of bonds that hold a carbon-based material together determines its hardness. For example, soft graphite has two-dimensional bonds, while hard diamond has three-dimensional bonds.
"The synthesis of amorphous carbon materials with three-dimensional chemical bonds has been a long-term goal," Explained Fei. "The trick is to find the right starting material and apply pressure to transform."
"For decades, Carnegie researchers have been at the forefront of this field, using laboratory techniques to generate extreme pressures to produce new materials, or to simulate conditions deep inside planets," added Richard Carlson, director of Carnegie Earth and Planetary Laboratory.
Because of its high melting point, it is impossible to synthesize diamond-like glass from diamond. However, a team led by Bingbing Liu of Jilin University and Mingguang Yao, a former Carnegie visiting scholar, made a breakthrough by using a form of carbon made up of 60 molecules arranged in a hollow ball. The Nobel-winning material, informally known as a "buckyball," is heated enough to cause its football-like structure to collapse, triggering disorder, which then turns carbon into crystalline diamonds under pressure.
The team used a large, multi-anvil press to synthesize the diamond-shaped glass. The glass is large enough to be characterized. It is characterized by the detection of atomic structure through various advanced, high-resolution techniques.
"The creation of glass with such superior properties will open the door to new applications," Fei explained. "The use of new glass materials depends on making large pieces, which was a challenge in the past. At relatively low temperatures, we are able to synthesize this new type of superhard diamond glass, which makes mass production more practical."
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