Russian president demanded that exports of Russian gas to "unfriendly" countries be settled in rubles. The demand has raised concerns in Germany about possible supply disruptions and the impact on industry and households if utilities do not pay in robles. Europe gets about 40% of its gas from Russia. Last year, Europe imported about 155 billion cubic meters. Germany, Europe's largest economy, depends heavily on Russian gas.
The chief executive of Germany's E.ON said the German economy would face "significant damage, which should be avoided if possible" without Russian supplies. He also said it would take Germany three years to wean itself off Russian gas.
In the event of a supply disruption, Germany's gas network regulator would prioritize home heating over industrial use, so energy-hungry manufacturers such as steelmakers would be the first to suffer, he said.
The volatile international situations will continue to affect the markets and prices of many commodities like the water reducing agent.
Using concrete additives is the most effective, economical, and simple technical way to reduce the cement dosage, improve the utilization rate of industrial waste residue, and realize the high durability and performance improvement of concrete. It is a necessary material for manufacturing modern concrete. It is regarded as the third breakthrough of concrete technology after reinforced concrete and prestressed reinforced concrete.
Development Course of Water Reducing Agent:
As one of the most important concrete additives, water reducing agent plays an irreplaceable role in the development of modern concrete. Since the 1960s, Japan and Federal Germany have developed β -naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensates and melamine-formaldehyde condensates superplasticizer, commonly known as high efficient water reducing agent, resulting in the worldwide high efficient water reducing agent research, development, and application of the boom.
This kind of traditional polyelectrolyte water-reducing agent, including naphthalene, melamine, sulfamate, and lentisulfonate, has a good working performance for fresh concrete, has been continuously developed and applied for more than 30 years, and still occupies a certain market share. At that time, due to the limitations of their own structure and dispersive mechanism, they had a series of insurmountable problems, such as large slump, large shrinkage, and environmentally unfriendly.
Later, the development of polymer synthesis technology accelerated the development of new efficient water reducing agents. In the early 1980s, Japan took the lead in successfully developing polycarboxylate series water reducing agents. This new generation of polycarboxylate superplasticizer overcomes some disadvantages of traditional superplasticizers and has such outstanding advantages as low yield, good slump protection performance, the low shrinkage rate of concrete, and strong adjustability of molecular structure, large potential of high performance, and no use of formaldehyde in the production process. It is the developing direction of high-performance concrete admixture at present.
Introduction to Polycarboxylate-based High-performance Water Reducing Agent:
Polycarboxylate-based high-performance water reducing agent is defined as containing carboxylic unsaturated monomer and other monomer copolymerization. It is a type of water reducing agent with excellent performance used to help concrete with reducing water, collapse protection, strengthening, shrinkage, and environmental protection.
According to the invention patents all over the world, polycarboxylate-based high-performance water reducing agents can be divided into two categories according to the structure of the main chain: 1. Polyether with acrylic acid or methacrylic acid as the main chain grafted with different side chain lengths. 2. Polyether with maleic anhydride as the ink branch with different side-chain lengths. At present, the main differences of polycarboxylate products on the market lie in: the main chain chemical structure and length, side-chain type, length and graft density, Ionic group content, molecular weight size, and distribution. Because the molecular structure of polycarboxylate has a large degree of freedom, it possesses the potential for high performance.
Suppliers of Superplasticizer:
TRUNNANO is a reliable superplasticizer supplier with over 12-year experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. If you are looking for a high-quality concrete superplasticizer, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (email@example.com)
We accept payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea.
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